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South Africa - ANC violence

  ANC violence in 1961-63

Mandela's men killed a child in 1962

ANC violence in 1980s

How many died?

ANC violence

Apartheid South Africa denied human rights and civil liberties to blacks, and they could not vote, so a case could be made for the use of some force against the state.

But real life is never as neat as theory. After Mandela turned the ANC to violence in 1961, the ANC committed many crimes and killed many innocents. Mandela is rightly praised for being a rare revolutionary who set up a democracy, but the canonisation of Mandela means that ANC violence cannot be discussed.

There is a lot to admire about Mandela. But it is important to remember that Mandela and the ANC were not peaceful. And some of their actions were basically terrorism.

The ANC bombing campaign, 1988 video.
Bombing civilian targets with "warnings" is still a war crime.
Mandela is more like Gerry Adams than like Gandhi.

ANC violence in 1961-63

Why was Mandela jailed? Mandela was oppressed for the colour of his skin, but he was not jailed for the colour of his skin. He was jailed for the 1961-63 ANC campaign of violence that he started, and that killed a child when the ANC fire-bombed her home.

Search old trial papers:

Mandela's men killed a child in 1962

Mandela turned the ANC to violence in 1961. He set up their armed wing MK to carry out attacks.

It is often said that the ANC in 1961-63 only carried out sabotage against government property, and killed no one. But this is a lie. By 1962, Mandela's MK men were already bombing the houses of opponents of the ANC, and they killed a child in 1962 when they fire-bombed her house in the night.

The forgotten victim is Daphne Hoyi. On the night of 15 Dec 1962, the MK fire-bombed the house of a black critic of the ANC, Inkie Hoyi, in Duncan Village. There were children asleep inside. His niece, 14 year old Daphne Hoyi, was badly burnt and died a few days later. His daughter, 10 year old Linda Hoyi, was badly burnt but survived.

Summary of the events. (Date of attack should be 15 Dec.)
Extracts from The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 1: 1960-1970 (also here).

Testimony of Inkie Hoyi.
From AD1901.32.1 in the trial State v. Malcomus Johnson Mgabela Kondoti and 4 others in 1964.

From Evidence of Reginald Mdubi (an ANC bomber) in the Rivonia trial.
He describes joining the new ANC in 1961 to follow the new plan of violence, which he calls the "Mandela Plan".
He describes bombing the houses of blacks who opposed the ANC.
He says they bombed the house of Inkie Hoyi, burning two children, and one of the children died.

Further evidence of Reginald Mdubi confirms the ANC were not just doing "sabotage".
They were bombing blacks who opposed them.
He later talks about the Hoyi bombing again.
Evidence of Bennet Nbuyo Nashigana confirms the Hoyi bombing was an ANC attack, under the "Mandela Plan".
Evidence of Det. Sgt. Donald Card lists a large number of ANC petrol bomb attacks on houses, including the Hoyi attack.

Google search on "Daphne Hoyi" in Dec 2013: 7 results.
Google search on "Nelson Mandela" in Dec 2013: 100 million results.
Talk about the forgotten!

ANC violence in 1980s

The ANC bombing campaign.
And search.

The Irish Times, 24 Dec 1985, reporting on the Amanzimtoti shopping centre bomb attack on white Christmas shoppers.
This was carried out by the MK, the military wing of the ANC. The MK was founded by Mandela.
Mandela was Deputy President of the ANC in 1985 to 1991.

5 year old girl being rushed to hospital after Mandela's bomb at Amanzimtoti shopping centre in 1985. She survived.
The bomb killed her 2 year old brother and an 8 year old girl.
From here, which has more pictures.
Mandela is more like Gerry Adams than like Gandhi.

How many died?

How many people died in political violence under and after apartheid? I have not been able to find reliable figures for how many people died under apartheid in 1948 to 1994, versus how many died in black-on-black violence in 1961 to date. (Maybe because the numbers make apartheid look good, so this is now a taboo subject.)

If you find proper stats for these, tell me here.

South African population growth (in millions) 1910 to 2010.
Apartheid was not genocide. In fact, by numbers, it was the opposite.
Apartheid led to a massive increase in the black population.
Stats. 1904 census: 3.5 million blacks. 1960 census: 10.9 million blacks. 2011 census: 41 million blacks.
See full size. From The longer walk to equality, The Economist, 6 Dec 2013.

Apartheid also saw a massive increase in black life expectancy (until Mandela destroyed that record).
Note the above is all life expectancy, but blacks were the vast majority of the population for all this period.
From here. Stats here.

By some estimates, 300,000 people died because of Mandela and Mbeki's handling of the AIDS issue.
Found here.

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